Busy Day [admin crap, LotFP]

Went through and updated the House Rules page, Occultism, the Savage, and a few other posts. Currently updating Physic to match my current offline rules, and reconciling firearms and Seamanship with my notes as well. Forgot how damn much some of this stuff has changed. Currently queuing posts for the next couple of days.

…also, I dropped the silverware drawer on one of my fingers and it’s pouring rain. So painkillers may be involved.

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LotFP Expanded Firearms rules table (House Rules)

I put together tables for my firearms rules today, as part of another campaign booklet I’ve made. It’s also going to be good for making my own DM screen/ref sheets. The folio is stalled until I catch up with Raggi on the matter of open content, but is currently in a releasable condition.
Small arms tables

The Good Ship (insert name here) (New LotFP Ship types, campaign stuff)

Next session is Sunday. Huzzah! I’ll be doing some bookkeeping, then running Forgive Us. Review to follow.

New rules after the break.

As you may recall, my players capped a ship, and I figured I’d stat her out here. The characters plan to rename her. Incidentally, the Lamentations rules make ship’s tonnage of cargo and crews hilariously inflated compared to their historical counterparts, so bear that in mind as you read this.

S.S. St. Yvette (Portugese registry)
Low-quality Caravel
2-masted, lateen-rigged* (ignores first 25% of positive or negative wind effects)
Speed: 60 nm / day (can still sail ~15m/day directly into the wind)

Arms: 3 swivel guns* (4 mounts on sterncastle, 1 mount forward), one light cannon (currently tied amidships facing to starboard).
11 barrels powder, 13 5-lb shot, 21 1-lb shot, + 1 hundredweight of lead, crew armaments. 3 metal breeches for each swivel gun.
Cargo: 40t, including ~5t hidden compartment (5t liquor, 15t grain).
Crew: 15 + 2 officers (monthly upkeep: 950 sp, 3 shares for sailors: 1 share, 100 sp for Master of Sail. Ship’s surgeon is a PC.)
Marines: currently 5 (1 additional full share, if combat encountered)
SHP: 20 max, currently @ 16 (repairing in port)

(more…)

LotFP Firearms, Pt Tertius – Misfire Table

I promised this update back in Part 2 (Part 1 is here) and finally sat down and hammered it out. The simple versions are first, but I just couldn’t resist making a longer and more complicated one.

Someone rolled a double "1".

Someone rolled a double “1”.

Definitions:
Damp weather is foggy, or with a very light rain (what we in the Northwest call a “mizzle” – not quite a drizzle, but worse than a mist). Most caves, crypts, and dungeons are Damp as well.

Wet weather means actively raining, or surrounded by constant soaking wetness (for example, hiding inside a mud-filled trench or culvert, or adventuring inside a sewer). NO blackpowder gun may be reloaded in Wet conditions unless the character is carrying Cartridges, or under cover and working with dry powder.
Wet weather penalties also apply if the gun has been in direct contact with water and not reloaded since – for example, while fording a stream, hit by a wave breaking over the deck, &c. The gun can, however, be reloaded without penalty.

Cartridges reduce weather penalties by 1, but cannot be used with cannon.

Using improvised repairs or supplies (powder, flints) adds 1 to the base Misfire chance (cumulative), but does not affect Misfire table rolls.
At your option, characters interrupted while re-priming or re-loading their gun may Misfire it, drop the matches or keys &c. I suggest a Breath save.

================
As written (Simplest):
=================
When a gun is fired, the target rolls against the gun’s misfire chance.
Wheel and matchlocks must be completely re-loaded on a misfire. Flintlocks must be reprimed only. Advanced locks ignore weather penalties.
Fast but boring, makes flintlocks an utter no-brainer.

=======================
As I ran it last session:
=====================
When a gun is fired, the target rolls against the gun’s misfire chance. Guns always misfire on a fumble (natural 1), and cannot misfire on a natural 20, even if they would normally misfire automatically.
On a misfire, the firing character must roll 1d20 again. If the gun didn’t fail because of the weather, a result of 1 (or 1-2 on a fumble) means the gun exploded, hitting its user for half damage (save vs. Breath to avoid). Otherwise, odds mean dud loads and evens mean squibs (match goes out, flash in the pan, spark failure, whatever).
Fast in-play, and easy to adjucate. Also, it killed one of the NPCs. Well, technically the botched surgery to correct the injury killed him, but he was already at 0 HP.

I'm so totally not a disaster waiting to happen! No, wait! Come back! T_T

I’m so totally not a disaster waiting to happen! No, wait! Come back! T_T

==============================================
The far more complicated but possibly more fun version:
==============================================

When a character uses a firearm, their target rolls 1d20 as well (as in the standard system). (I’ll be keeping the fumble and crit options here)
If it comes up under the gun’s basic Misfire chance, the firing character rolls again on the misfire table. This table is graduated based on the various dangers of the gun’s type. The base misfire chance penalty I originally used for breechloaders, tack-on pistols, and multi-barrel guns has been removed, in favor of direr consequences when they fail.
“Shoddy” guns cost 75% of the gun’s final cost, and take 25% less time to make.

———————————————-
Misfire Chances by Weapon Type:
———————————————-

Lockless:
Misfires on a 1-6 on 1d20, on a 1-12 in the Damp, and cannot be fired in the Wet.
A Lockless gun rolls 1d6 on the Misfire table
Matchlock:
Misfires on a 1-4 on 1d20, on a 1-8 in Damp conditions, and 1-16 in the Wet.
Matchlocks roll 1d8 on the Misfire table
Wheel-lock:
Misfires on a 1-4 on 1d20, with no modifiers for weather.
Wheel-locks roll 1d10 on the Misfire table
Flintlock:
Misfires on a 1-2 on 1d20, or on a 1-4 in Wet conditions.
Flintlocks roll 1d12 on the Misfire table

Misfire Effects
Roll: Result:
1 or less Explosion!
2-5 Dud load
6-7 Bad Load
8 Lock Damage
9 or more Squib/Flash-in-the-pan

Subtract 1 from the roll if the gun is Low-quality, a Breech-loader and/or double-barreled or multi-shot (cumulative).
Add 1 to the roll if the gun failed due to weather conditions (that is, it would not have misfired without a weather penalty)
Note that this means that a dodgy flintlock is more likely to explode than a well-made one (10% vs 5%) but far less likely to do so than a badly-made handgonne (~33%) or matchlock (~25%). This is very, very intentional.

Results:
Explosion!: Well, shit. The gun is immediately rendered useless. Player must save vs. Breath or take half the gun’s damage.

Dud load: The powder was bad, or water got in. The character must reload the gun entirely, taking an additional 3 rounds to clear it, before firing again.

Bad Load: Roll 1d6. If the roll is 3 or less, the gun was underloaded. Otherwise, it was overloaded. An Overloaded gun doubles its damage, and an Underloaded gun halves it.

Lock Damage: the gun’s base Misfire chance increases by 1. Flintlocks must replace the flints, Wheel-locks become unusable until repaired.

Flash-in-the-pan: The priming powder went off, but the gun didn’t, or the match went out.
Matchlock guns must relight the match, taking 2 uninterrupted rounds to remove and replace it.
• Flintlocks take 1 uninterrupted Round to recock and reprime
• Wheel-locks take 3 Rounds to re-wind the wheel.
Additionally, the gun’s base Misfire chance increases by 1 until it is reloaded or successfully fired.

Island of the Forgotten: Session 1 (actual play!)

Finally got in the first session of that campaign I was working on. It has, of course, gone at once completely buggerfuck off the rails and Just As Planned ™. In addition, I was.. somewhat impaired at the time.

The party currently consists of Hernando the Spaniard deserter, William “T.” Byron (“you can tell that’s his real name, it’s stitched into his boots!) – alleged Doctor of Medicine – and the dowager Dame Elizabeth (last name omitted), newly-inherited rogue archeologist in search of her latchkey father.

Our assumed time is the late 1600s, with the party seeking passage (each for their own reasons) to Zanzibar from Marseilles. Alas, this was not to be, but I’ve gotten ahead of myself.

Our lady Knight advertised for likely fellows of stout arm and short brain at the sign of the Prancing Goat (famed for powerful cheese and weak wine). A half-dozen men and one dog volunteer their services; “Ol’Roy” the female masitff and her handler Brygyd sign on as men-at-arms, and Hernando as a full-share partner, with several others turned away. Roy and Hernando hit it off immediately, although Roy seems to hate literally everyone and everything else (and can’t hit for beans in combat). With a party assembled, they sought passage on some ship; Mr. “Byron”, sent by his captain to find passengers for an ENTIRELY LEGITIMATE trip to Zanzibar, soon offered compelling terms. Returning to the ship, the doctor was approached by an emissary for a mysterious woman named “Estelle”, inviting him to come to her mansion for a spot of delivery work to Algiers. Again, the party declined. Thanks to a successful surprise roll, they managed to avoid a massive religious riot, before exacerbating it (fucking PCs) and attempting to use the cover of the ensuing fire to get in a spot of looting.

Three days later, and six hours out from Algiers, they got ambushed by a small pirate galley – and tore it apart. Ol’Roy managed to do absolutely nothing, the hireling hid and brained a pirate with a pipe. The party did somewhat better. Our good doctor garrotted a boarder below-decks and shot another in the face, slitting the throat of a third – one of whom was a former applicant to the party (the pirates had hired on two of the rejected hirelings, and been paid handsomely to deliver Estelle’s item). Doc Byron then hilariously badly failed his Physic roll to stabilize the ship’s First Mate, determining that amputation was the best way to cure the damage the Mate’s exploding pistols had done to his hands. It was not.
Dame Elizabeth missed with every shot, though she managed to dash her opponent’s blade from his hands and very efficiently brain him with her rifle.
Meanwhile Hernando accidentally shot the PC’s vessel’s captain along with the pirates’, killing both (firing into melee for the.. win?). Both crews failed their morale checks, and only the fact that the pirates won initiative that round saved the PC’s ship from surrendering (sometimes it pays to go second). Hernando immediately rallied the disheartened crew, and holed the galley with the ship’s pair of light swivel guns (see here).
Total spoils: 20 galley slaves (freed and ransomed in Algiers), 4 captured men-at-arms, including the remaining former applicant (sold into slavery by the party for ~10sp – slaves being worth 1sp per 2hp), gems totalling 10k sp (split with the galley’s crew, PCs only got about 900 each), a couple maps, and a lead box containing a golden lion decorated in Scythian motifs (Estelle’s item – it had an address letter for a notable personage in Algiers attached. Of course the party immediately opened it). Every party member with the skill blew their Occultism roll, so they’ll just have to play with it to find out how it works. *snicker*
They also got an assortment of moderate-quality boarding weaponry, 4 matchlock calivers, and a brace of pistols.
And the good ship “Yvette”. She has a reputation. They haven’t gotten into her cargo hold yet.

Hernando managed to win the respect of enough men to be acclaimed Captain despite the doctor’s technical claim on the position, and so the crew enters Algiers seeking refit, ale, and whores (the Lady Elizabeth interjects at this point to assert that she seeks only the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge, not that of the vine, nor indeed of the loins). Carouse rolls (using these rules) ensued for the “gentlemen” of the party.
Doctor “Byron” gained several hundred XP, but was fined by the authorities for issuing a challenge to a duel with the butt of his shotgun, then welshing on the duel due to a violent hangover. Hernando seduced.. someone. He’s not quite sure, but he appears to be in love. Now he needs to find her. And his wallet. And the pants they were in.
Meanwhile, the much more sedate Lady Elizabeth visited the home of a scholar she located from her father’s papers, inquiring after her paternal relative. His ship, it would seem, was last seen in these parts chartered for an undisclosed location in the Pacific. Despite being a semiannual visitor in the past, the vessel has not been seen again these last 5 years. Unfortunately, the gentleman was not versed in Scythian antiquities. Also unfortunately, she opened the box inside his study.

Join us next time, as “Byron” levels up, Ol’ Roy continues to aggressively slobber and fawn on every passer-by while snarling furiously, a tongueless Italian deserter plots his revenge, and various things are lit on fire.
I’ll be frankly surprised if they aren’t flying the black flag on the wrong goddamned side of the planet in three sessions. This is gonna be great.

LotFP / AD&D Firearms, Pt’m Secundus

I’m putting together campaign materials for my Colonial game. Today, it’s time to update my last post on firearms with some more specific stats for the guns. Working on a misfire table for my own use, which I finally finished (here)
The usual disclaimer: These are intended for Lamentations of the Flame Princess, but suitable for pretty much any RPG with hit dice. As always, LotFP uses the Silver standard, so bump up prices to GP if you’re one of those folks. Encumbrance also works uniquely, based on number of items and their clumsiness, rather than on weight per se. I’ve listed standard weights for each weapon type as a nod to the AD&D folks out there.

Weapon:
handgonne
Handgonne:
Quite literally a hand cannon, the handgonne has a short barrel and a touch-hole (see: “No Lock” in my previous post). They suffer from a cannon’s standard to-hit penalties. They may, however, be hooked onto a stable surface or fired with a second crew member rather than fired from the carry; they then suffer only a -5 penalty to hit targets smaller than a house, & gain a +2 to hit larger targets. They weigh anywhere from 15 to 30 or more pounds, and count as a single Oversized item.
Range: As Pistol
Dmg: 1d10, or 1 ship-scale HP, ignores all armor less than AC 15 at all ranges
Reload time: As Musket.

A period image of a calliveri, fro De Gheyn's drill booklet

A period image of a calliveri, from De Gheyn’s drill booklet

Caliver:
The Caliver (from which the word “caliber” is derived) is a light-weight long gun. Well, light by the standards of the day – most still weighed well over 10 lbs. A caliver is what most are thinking of in the modern era when they say “musket”. Calivers were standardized at what we now call 20-gauge, Id Est, 20 round lead shot the diameter of the barrel will weigh one pound. Calivers may be fired from the shoulder without penalty.
Range: as LotFP Musket.
Damage: 1d8, ignores all armor less than AC 15 at all ranges. May be used as a club in close combat for 1d6 damage.
Cost: 40sp City, 80sp Rural.
A Caliver is an Oversized item.

Note the lanyard on the rest, which allows quick recovery when reloading.

A Musketeer, again from De Gheyn. Note the lanyard on the rest, which allows quick recovery when reloading.

Musket:
A substantially more powerful weapon, the Musket is a 12-gauge gun, or a bit over .70 caliber. They also load a much heavier powder charge, kick like mules, and take three “hands” to fire effectively – see Rests, below.. A historical musket could weigh upwards of 25lbs, and was made sturdily enough to use as a melee weapon. The heavy diamond-shaped stocks on most muskets added considerable authority to a good smack upside the head with one, which was quite helpful in the years before the bayonet (plug bayonets were only invented around 1700, and latching bayonets that didn’t block the barrel wouldn’t show up for several decades thereafter).

Range and cost as standard LotFP muskets.
Damage: 1d12, ignores all armor less than AC 17 at all ranges. 1d6 damage when used in close combat.
Muskets count as one Oversized item (the musket itself) AND one Standard item (the rest).

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Carbine/Dragoon’s Pistol:
Basically, a sawed-off caliver or a very long pistol. They were designed to be portable and powerful, and were occasionally carried as back-up weapons by pikemen or halberdiers. The carbine counts as a single item, and may not be combined into a brace. It may also be conveniently holstered on a saddle or even a character’s thigh, being about the size of a good sword. They may be fired with one hand, weighing only around 5-10 lbs.
Range: 30/60/120 feet
Damage: 1d8 (2d3 for scattershot, 2d4 if a blunderbuss), ignores all armor less than AC 15 at short range. Does 1d4 damage when used as a club.
Cost:   30sp City, 60sp Rural
Carbines reload 1 round faster than long guns. Note that, like other bonuses, this is subtracted >before< a halving effect such as a flintlock or breech-loading modification.

Miscellaneous items:
Flints
tend to break after only a few shots, and need to be constantly sharpened. Characters are, however, assumed to take care of this outside combat if they have a flint nodule, costing 6 coppers. If deprived of flint, or time to knap new ones, a flintlock or wheel-lock gun will become unusable after 2d6 shots. 1d6 flints may be improvised from a tinderbox, but increase the gun’s misfire chances by 5%. A flint nodule or knapped flint is a Negligible item.

Cartridges: Not the modern metal-cased cartridges, these are waxed paper packages of powder in a waterproof satchel. They reduce reload times by one round, and decrease the chances for misfire in the damp by 5%. They modify fire saves and cause damage if ignited in the same way as a powder horn. Cartridges cost as much as a single shot of powder, and may be prepared by any character with a gun in their downtime (basically, in the same manner as flints, it’s unimportant to track under most circumstances; assume a character on the run has 2d6 cartridges prepared if they don’t specify a number beforehand). A sack of cartridges is a Standard item.

Gun Rest: A standard musket rest costs 5sp. This price is consistent in urban or rural settings. A rest counts as an additional “hand” when firing a long gun; the character may hold a sword or other item ready for use in the off-hand while shooting any weapon that requires 2 hands. See also below, for hybrid rests. A rest weighs about 5 lbs, and counts as a single Standard item for encumbrance purposes.

Scattershot and Armor: Improvised scattershot, shots from a blunderbuss, sling stones, and bullets from pellet bows do not ignore armor, regardless of the strength of the user or the size of the gun.

A box full of very bad ideas.

Weapon Modifications:

Blunderbuss modification: The gun can no longer fire slugs. Halves range. Upgrades shot damage to 2d6 for long guns; all other shot rules remain intact. Improvised shot may still be used, at the usual 2d4 for damage.

Double-barrel modification: Cannot be applied to a Musket. Adds 90% to the weapon’s cost. Adds a 5% chance of misfire. Both barrels can be fired simultaneously, but the user must save vs. Poison or break an appropriate part of their body and/or the gun. Reload times are as normal for each barrel. Each additional barrel added beyond the second adds the same cost and misfire chance, and the Poison save if all barrels are fired is penalized by -4.

Breech-loader: Double the base price of the gun, and halve reload time. As with a Flintlock, bonuses are counted before this halving effect, and Fighters round down while all other classes round up. A standard misfire (in this case, misfires caused by dampness are ignored) has a 25% chance of destroying the gun and inflicting 1d6 HP of damage on the gun’s user.

Note that other concealable "hold-out" pistols, such as these, follow the same rules as Tack-On guns

Note that other concealable “hold-out” pistols, such as these, follow the same rules as Tack-On guns

Tack-on pistol: A small-caliber pistol may be built into virtually anything. A tacked-on pistol may not use scattershot. They do not increase the Encumbrance category of the item, and two hold-out pistols may be carried as a Brace. A tack-on pistol adds 5% to the lock’s base Misfire chance.
Range: 10/25/50.
Damage: 1d4. Can be fired in close combat, but cannot be used as a club. Does not ignore armor.
Cost: 25 sp Urban, 50 sp Rural
Reloads as a pistol

A French musketeer using a Hybrid Rest

A French musketeer using a Hybrid Rest

Hybrid Rest: For a cost of 2sp a musket hook can be added to any polearm. It inflicts a -1 to-hit with the polearm in close combat. This was one of the usual solutions to the problem the bayonet solved; a character may ready the polearm simply by dropping their gun, and be ready to receive a charge immediately.

LotFP Playtest rules: Firearms

Got tired of waiting on Jim, and my brother and I are both setting up games with them in – he in the death of the Middle Ages, me in the age of Colonialism. Because what good is a Colonial game where you can’t trade guns to the natives?
Keep in mind, these are a rough-out playtest draft. It also adds onto the rules for bows and crossbows: it makes a high-STR fighter devastating with a custom-crafted longbow, but a high-dex Halfling with a heavy crossbow or anyone with a gun will give him a very good run for his money.
If the damage seems a little low to you, remember that these will reliably kill 2nd-level characters and even 0-level dwarves in a single hit. And as someone who’s killed a boar with modern firearms, “angry” game with multiple hit dice is hard to take down; I know a man who took 12 bullets and not only lived, but pistol-whipped the guy who shot him with his own gun.

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Playtest firearm rules. These rules assume an ascending AC, 5-save system, and are loosely based on the crossbow rules from Lamentations of the Flame Princess. They are intended to cover (very roughly) the period from the late middle ages to mid-19th century.

When using bows, if a character has a -STR modifier, the target’s armor class is improved by that amount. Bows otherwise ignore 1 point of AC per point of STR modifier of the targeting character. Light crossbows have an effective STR of 16 (-2 AC). Heavy crossbows have an effective STR of 19 (-4 AC). Light guns, such as pistols and blunderbusses, have an effective STR of 19 (-4 AC): heavy guns like muskets and hand-gonnes have 22 effective STR (-5 AC). Cannon ignore armor completely, but suffer a -10 to-hit any target smaller than a house. Pellet bows and slings DO NOT ignore armor in any way.

Bows are typically made to accommodate a STR 10-12 character; a custom-made bow can be had for a small premium. Short bows, however, cannot be made heavier than STR 16. When using a bow heavier than they can normally draw, characters suffer a -1 to-hit per 2 points of STR required above their own. There is no bonus for using a lighter bow.
Any crossbow may be quick-drawn as a move action on a successful opposed STR check. Failure may result in injury to the character or bow, and drawing the bow cannot be attempted again that turn.
All blackpowder guns may be fired only once per combat, unless the character can somehow find a way to spend the better part of a minute doing delicate, fiddly work that requires their full concentration (IE, withdraw from combat for 6 rounds to reload).
Historical note: There were a tiny handful of faster-loading guns in the late middle ages (the cartridge was actually invented sometime near the turn of the fifteenth century, albeit as a set of hand-forged removable breeches), but these are expensive, vanishingly rare, and frequently extremely unsafe.

Pistols do 1d8 damage, long guns like muskets or handgonnes 1d12, and blunderbusses 2d6 (2d4 with improvised ammo). Cannon balls instantly kill any character hit unless they successfully save vs. poison: on a successful save, the character is reduced to 0 HP, possibly maimed. Grapeshot does very bad things to a moderate area. The cannon suffers only a -5 to-hit using shot, and anyone within 10 feet of the target is also hit on a successful shot. For damage, use multiple dice based on the size of the gun (a typical light field gonne would be around 3D6, a full-on 12lb cannon more like 5 to 6 D6); cover reduces the rolled damage by its miss percentage, and characters may make a further save vs. Breath Weapon to halve that damage.
Use your own discretion as to what category a given weapon falls under, and don’t hesitate to increase or decrease the damage dice based on the individual weapon, your needs, and possibly the use of fell magics.

Most guns run the risk of deafening the user in enclosed spaces; save vs. Paralysis or go deaf for 1d6 turns when firing in these circumstances. Make an immediate Morale check – AND Wandering Monster check, if applicable – when a gun is first fired in combat. Most natural animals will spook instantly when fired upon, making hunting harder but potentially more rewarding. When hunting, a gunner expends only 1d3 ammunition per roll, but must roll 2 dice against his fieldcraft skill and take the worst. If the roll succeeds and the dice come up doubles, the party gains that many HD worth of additional meat.

UPDATE: Tacking on a Pistol
A small-caliber pistol may be built into virtually anything. They do 1d4 damage, but take the normal amount of time to reload. They may well wind up costing several times the amount a regular pistol would, however, and are usually more fragile and prone to misfire. Still, the Morale checks and ability to conceal the gun can be worth the expense.

Fortuna Favet Paratibus

Fortuna Favet Paratibus

While making an exhaustive list of rules for each type of available gun would be silly, here’s some basics to consider when you’re choosing what technology your world will use. Disadvantages are in normal type, advantages in italics. They are listed in rough chronological order.

No Lock: must be hand-lit, distracting, requires matches (and thus their stink/light, expends matches, useless in rain) or a fuse, hard to aim when it’s not on a trunnion, exposed touch-hole, high accidental discharge risk, higher risk of explosive failure/operator injury. Extremely simple design, cheap to make, and reliable ignition. First available guns. A fuse and a clay packed touch-hole resolve most ignition issues. Only real option for cannon for most of history. Requires only matches or fuse, shot, and powder to function.

Matchlock: Produces stench and light when prepped, useless in rain, exposed touch-hole, matches burn down (consumes 1 match per hour lit and prepped). Accidental discharge risk from most flame sources (or igniting a match attached to the gun). Simple and robust system; cheap and easily-made. Relatively easy to re-cock. Allowed triggers for guns.
Note that, contrary to popular opinion, matchlock pistols did exist, they just sucked.
benno_pistol600

Wheel-lock: delicate, temperamental, most designs useless in rain, v. expensive. Unreliable ignition, requiring reprime and rewind for a flash-in-the-pan. Very slow load/reload process. Requires spare pyrites (it goes through them very quickly) and a key or crank, can only be repaired by a watchmaker or equivalent. Silent and scentless until triggered, and can be carried loaded and wound without fear of accidental discharge. Can be carried on a horse. First lock design actually suitable for pistols.
There’s a reason these bitches cost 7+ times what a matchlock does
Gold-chased double-barreled wheel lock
Flintlock: Late origins in real world. Still can’t usually be safely fired in the rain, but it will work in the damp. May squib. Requires spare flints, but few other non-ammo consumables. Requires some precision metalwork, as well as screws. Requires less maintenance and can fire more times than a wheelie before needing an overhaul. Can still be carried loaded relatively safely. Compact and silent/scentless before discharge. Can be swiftly reprimed and re-cocked if the flash-pan squibs. The first revolvers (in the 1620s..) were flintlocks, but required insane levels of metalwork.
1299004067179Other attempts at multishot flintlocks were.. less successful.
1368517150754
Percussion Lock: Very late development. Requires small, fiddly caps, making combat reloads stay annoying. Requires some precision metalwork, but not nearly as bad as the other locks. Virtually immune to rain or damp on first shot, although reloads in the rain still aren’t happening. No flashpan, so no priming and more reliable ignition. Made true semi-automatic weapons practical. Very robust ignition system, with few moving parts; losing the cap, or accidental discharge from keeping the hammer down on a cap, while jostling it are your worst problems..
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Air Rifle (yes, they existed, and yes, they were lethal): Mid-late colonial period. Lower damage (still enough to kill a man, though – the Austrian Army and Lewis and Clark both used them to good effect), air reservoir is delicate and slowly leaks. Cannot be used as a melee weapon. Requires water, shot, and leather gaskets to function, and reloading after the reservoir is empty takes a long time (up to 10 minutes). Accurate, rifled. Bolt-action, repeating weapon with as many as 30 shots per reservoir of air and a 20-round magazine. Comparatively, it’s very quiet – about as loud as a suppressed .308 – and produces no smoke. No powder or fire required. Gunners can carry additional loaded reservoirs.